Climate Change

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Climate Change



      When Hurricane Katrina flooded New Orleans, the Coast Guard went in to rescue people from the roofs of their flooded homes. Calls from stranded people came in nonstop. The members of the Coast Guard were not familiar with the area. The street signs were down. Street addresses were not useful. The Coast Guard, with support from United States Geological Survey (USGS), solved the problem by geocoding the addresses from 911 calls. Geocoding is the graphic representation usually in the form of a point on a map of
information in a database that includes street addresses or other location information. The street addresses were converted to longitude and latitude coordinates that allowed the Coast Guard to locate those who were stranded. This is just one of the ways an emergency manager can use technology to save
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GIS Database Development ...

 GIS Database Development and Exchange

 The idea of sharing geographic data both within and between organizations remains largely resisted despite the obvious benefits that can be derived from data-sharing activities and Federal initiatives that promote them. The research presented in this paper examines the various properties of data-sharing activities, as well as related motivations cited by members of organizations as reasons for entering into cooperative relationships. The findings suggest that organizational members have a number of different reasons for engaging in data-sharing relationships, with common missions/goals and saving of resources being the most frequently cited motivations. Financial resources are the more important reasons for external than for internal interactions...
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Internet GIS for ASIA Flux Database

 S-1 project: Integrated Study for Terrestrial Carbon Management of Asia in the 21st Century Based on Scientific Advancements”, which is to estimate CO2 Flux in Asia is curried out since 2002 until 2007 under the Global Environment Research Fund, Ministry of the Environment, Japan. Comparison of point based meteorological observation data, satellite data with model simulation (SIMCycle, BIOM BGC, TsuBimo, etc) and assimilation of meteorological data, satellite data with models to evaluate the trend of CO2 Flux in Asia are the final goal of this project. As a field observation datasets, eddy covariant method based monitoring for CO2 Flux and other related parameters have been observed under the project. Many environmental researchers use those data through the FLUXNET or ASIAFLUX data distribution network...
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Climate change, water...

 Climate change, water and food security

This Synthesis Paper is based on an Expert Meeting held in Rome 26–28 February 2008 as a preparation for the FAO High Level Conference (HLC) on World Food Security and the Challenges of Climate Change and Bioenergy in June 2008. This Synthesis Paper contains a necessarily rapid appraisal of the implications of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (AR4-IPCC) for agricultural water management and, based on that evidence, offers a more operationally focused diagnosis. It provides a summary analysis of a baseline, including projected trends without climate change and mitigation measures; the anticipated set of climate change impacts; a set of possible responses; main findings and recommendations; and a set of options for decision-makers.
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Creating a GIS database...

 Creating a GIS database for mapping climate change, vulnerability and adaptability
This project was to develop a Geographic Information System (GIS) for displaying, managing and aiding analysis of various demographic, spatial and socio-economic datasets based on the household survey carried out in Sakai sub location in three villages a namely Kathamba, Nthongoni and Linga in Makueni District in Kenya. The project contributes to the role of data and land information in land use decisionmaking by purposefully improving the type, quality and availability of land information and analysis. The key questions included: is new information being used, in what form, who is using it, and has the improved accuracy, specificity and availability resulted in
different decisions?
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Poverty is a socio-economic scourge raging at varying degrees throughout the African continent. Its prevalence is most pervasive in the cores of African traditional cities than in the urban peripheries which tend to be more modernized. Non-recognition of the heterogeneous nature of urban poverty and the many players involved in its management has only helped to aggravate the problem. Consequently, a holistic planning, implementation and control approach is imperative. This should involve all tiers of government, non-governmental bodies, donor agencies, international organizations with the research community on one hand, and a combination of historical, economical, sociological, anthropological and spatial perspectives on the other hand. The spatial perspective, which is the main focus of this paper, serves to interface with the other perspectives since people are used to space and they live in space. In this regard, Geographic Information technology (GIT) is of utmost importance with the Spatial Database Management System (DBMS) as its heart...

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Updates to FPS...

 Updates to FPS Database from GIS Database
We are assuming that the current FPS database is linked to the current GIS database and all polygons match in number, identification and size (in acres). This example uses “Inv2005.mdb” as the FPS database and “VegPoly” as the GIS-linked polygon layer. The example described here is updating from year-end 2005 to year-end 2006...

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Final Report for GIS database

In order to establish information infrastructure in Lao PDR, construction of GIS database covering basic geology, mineral resource, geophysics (ground and airborne), geochemistry and other information is definitely significant for Lao PDR’s mining sector and it is also one of missions of the MEM and/or the DGM as a government organization. The database will be used for geology and mineral resource map creation and information disclosure via Internet and CD distribution, from technical point of view. With the object of national strategy, it is also used for designing of mining strategy and study of mining policy. In addition to its usage in mining field, the GIS database would also assist in compilation of land-use, environment conservation, disaster prevention, hydrogeology, civil engineering and so forth. The content is exactly a fundamental information in geo-science field in this country.
This GIS database should include those widely varieties of contents, and collection and integration of surrounding information are inevitable. Though the DGM already started to use GIS technology to create geological maps, mineral occurrence maps and to manage mining concession data, they have a lot of problems such as shortage of operation budget, human resource, a lack of technical level, hiatus of strategy of information infrastructural construction and so on, as mentioned in later sections in this report. Various projects have been conducted by some international aid agencies to implement GIS equipment and human education, however, the DGM still does not rise to the self-sustainable stage...
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Designing the GIS Database Schema

Database designers use the word schema to refer to the diagram and documents
that lay out the structure of the database and the relationships that exist between
elements of the database.A schema is like a blueprint for a database that tells a knowledgeable builder exactly how to construct it. Naturally, designers spend a lot of time thinking about the schema.This work comes before worrying too much about the
exact content of tables and even before design concerns for the spatial data. Rushing into building a database without laying out your schema is like trying to build a house without a set of plans; it might stand up for a while, but it will not be as useful as it could be. The tools that assist in the construction of these schema are called computer assisted software engineering (CASE) tools.These same tools are used to design the structure of complex computer programs as well as databases, and most programmers know how to use them. Many in the GIS world do not, but it is usually possible to design your database with paper and pencil, and some database designers still work this way.The ability to erase entire tables, delete relationships, add relationships, and so on, is sometimes easier with pencil and paper or on a whiteboard than mastering a new set of tools. One of the problems with GIS is that it appears to force you to develop areas of specialization and skill that you didn’t have before. Sometimes it just takes too long to learn the new tools, so feel free to use simpler ones you have mastered instead of new tools that do basically the same thing...

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Climate Change Debating America’s Policy Options

Climate change is among the most complex problems on the foreign policy agenda. Even with a mounting consensus that humans are causing a change in the world’s climate, experts are divided on the severity of the problem and the necessity and nature of policy responses. Practically any course of action implies that today’s societies will incur costs as they deviate from the status quo, and any benefits of their efforts will accrue mainly in the distant future. Such intergenerational bargains are always hard to strike. Compounding the difficulty is the reality that this problem is truly global in scope. A few nations—led by the United States, which is responsible for one-quarter of the effluent that is linked to global warming—account for most emissions. Yet in a global economy some measure of global coordination will be required to ensure that some do not ride free on the efforts of others. This issue thus involves all the factors that make it hard to construct successful foreign policy: highly complex yet uncertain scientific knowledge, widely diverging interests, and the need for effective international arrangements.
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Migratory species...

 Migratory species and climate change
Biodiversity and Climate Change are intimately linked. Current and Expected Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity.
Climate Change is a phenomenon which currently can be recognized by many indicators in Germany. The impacts of Climate Change affect not only species and ecosystems but also the economy and the people of Germany. Nature conservation is faced with new challenges and thoughts on appropriate strategies and measures to cope with the most likely developments are essential. The following text deals with the status and perspectives of German nature conservation under Climate Change, taking the country as an example for Central Europe...
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Today’s MBA students will soon find themselves in a business-world marked by pressing environmental concerns: impending water scarcity, high energy costs, and, of course, global warming. Companies that try to stay ahead of the curve on climate change, such as Toyota, DuPont, and GE, seem to be able to transform the issue from one of risk management to top-line growth and business opportunity. Within the past decade climate change has moved from the environmental to the financial realm, as far as business is concerned. Firms must juggle many climate change-related issues, including the prospect of future regulation, insurance liabilities, investor pressure, and consumer relations. Climate change is even becoming a human resources issue. Interestingly, BP found that employee satisfaction rises when the company demonstrates effort on the climate change front...
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The event will explore the options for international carbon crediting of countries within an emissionsrestraint environment. Most Eastern and Central European countries will continue to face emission reduction targets after 2012 or move into the capped environment. The event will look at various instruments to achieve real, measurable and sustainable GHG emission reductions, including Green Investment Schemes (GIS), Joint Implementation (JI), emission trading and domestic offsets...
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A Reformed CDM

Two things can be said about the CDM: it has been successful in creating a dynamic carbon market, and it can certainly be improved. Since the Kyoto Protocol entered into force in 2005, the CDM has developed very rapidly, with more than 4000 projects in the pipeline and a further 120 new projects entering the pipeline every month. Together, these projects represent a cumulative expected total of 2.8 billion tonnes of reductions by 2012. In a very short time, the CDM has mobilised billions of dollars in public and private investment to reduce emissions in developing countries. At the same time, the CDM has encountered a number of challenges and weaknesses, including unequal regional distribution of projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM’s contribution to sustainable development. This edition of Perspectives tries to answer the question, “Where to from here?” In other words: “How to reform the CDM in a post-2012 climateregime?”...
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This Guide is a brief introduction to the Danish CDM Project Development Facility (PDF). The Danish Project Development Facility was established in 2003 and it has already supported the development of a number of successful CDM project activities in Malaysia. Denmark has also over the past years supported Malaysia in establishing a CDM secretariat which functions include the development of administrative guidelines, establishing criteria for small-scale renewable energy projects and the development of framework conditions that support the process of mobilizing Malaysian resources. The Danish supported activities include training and raising awareness in relation to CDM, targeted at selected industries, sectors and
CDM relevant institutions.
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